JavaScript and Variables

So far, the languages we’ve dealt with have not been programming languages. For web applications, or any application for that matter, to be truly dynamic, a programming language is incorporated. Javascript is the programming language of the web and is an interpreted, high level, object oriented programming language. This makes it a really powerful, but very easy to use language for making your websites really quite nice.

Prepare For Javascript

Javascript is stored in .js files, and like CSS files, we must tell the browser in our HTML document to link to them. For this project, make an index.0b075ea4.html, a main.css and a main.js file. Similar to the last lesson’s file, fill your index.0b075ea4.html like so:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="main.css" />
        <div id="output"></div>
        <div class="button" id="button"></div>

        <script type="text/javascript" src="main.js"></script>

This is a pretty simple file, but there are some new things here. There is the id attribute, which is a unique identifier for elements in your HTML document. It’s useful for css but it is the most useful for identifying elements with javascript. You can not have more than one element with the same id attribute in your HTML document.

The second new aspect here is the <script> element, which links to your javascript file. This is similar to the <link> element, but with a few key differences:

Now fill your css file with the button class we made in the last lesson, just for some good looks.

.button {
    width: 200px;
    height: 40px;
    background: #111111;
    color: #ffffff;
    padding-top: 20px;
    text-align: center;
    font-family: Tahoma, sans-serif;
    margin-left: auto;
    margin-right: auto;

.button:hover {
    background: #aaaaaa;
    cursor: pointer;

Hello World!

“Hello World!” is an infamous program that first time programmers use to prove that they can program. It involves printing that very simple phrase to the screen, we shall do exactly the same, try this code out in your main.js file

document.write("Hello World!");

If you have done everything correctly, this text should display where you put your script element. And just like that, you are now a programmer! But what exactly have we done here? The first thing you’ve done is accessed an object called document which represents your HTML document, and then by using the period (.), you can access properties within that object. A property that you have accessed is a function, called write, and then to this function you have passed an argument, the text "Hello World!". The browser executes that function and prints the text as asked.

document.write is generally frowned upon for security reasons, so now we can turn to that div we created earlier for outputting. Change your code to this

document.getElementById("output").innerHTML = "Hello World!";

Now if you execute this, the text should appear where you made your output div. What’s going on this time? We’re accessing the same document object, but using a different function. getElementById will take an id as an argument, and then return an element from the document with that id. In this case we gave it output, so in return, it gave us the output element from the document. Then on that object, we’re accessing a variable, innerHTML, and then setting that variable with = to the string "Hello World!". And from that, the text has been put into the document.


Here’s a new term for you. A variable is a really important thing for programmers, and understanding them will be a great step towards becoming a good programmer. A variable simply stores a bit of data that you can access and change. There are many different kinds, but you’ll mainly deal with numbers and strings (text). To declare a variable in Javascript, do the following

var a = 5;

We’ve set a to 5. You should only define a variable once in a document, to access it again, just set it without the var sign.

a = 5;

Great, so now what? We can access that variable and put it in our document.

var a = 5;
document.getElementById("output").innerHTML = a;

So now we’ve set a to 5, and then set innerHTML to a. So with any luck, you should see the number 5 on screen.

Maths with Variables

Computers are pretty smart, and we can tap into that smartness in a lot of different ways. One way is to get them to perform calculations that we can’t be bothered to do. Typing out maths in a programming language is pretty simple

var a = (5 + 2) * 3 / 9 - 1;

You should be familiar with all of those symbols, but just in case

And in conjunction with regular BEDMAS rules, we’ve also made use of some brackets. Bear in mind that none of this has to be put in the variable’s definition. By putting an equals sign after the operator, it can be put almost anywhere

var a = 2;
a += 20;

Just like with our innerHTML, variables can be put on the right side of the equation as well

var a = (5 + 2) * 3 / 9 - 1;
a += 20;

var b = 2;
a += b;

document.getElementById("output").innerHTML = a;

And that’s about all you need to know for a basic understanding of variables. Currently, it may seem like programming isn’t helping us much, but we’re not far away from some true interactivity.

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